Birth Defect of Brain Malformation Traced to Antidepressants

Study Shows High Rate of Debilitating Chiari I Brain Malformation from Antidepressant Use by Pregnant Mothers

The use of antidepressants on pregnant mothers has been found to increase the rate of a brain deformity in newborns known as Chiari I malformation approximately 9 times its normal prevalence.

Chiari I malformation is an abnormal development of brain growth in which the bottom of fetuses’ brains grow outside their skulls by extending downward through the hole in the bottom of their skulls and into the top of their spinal canals. After these children are born this brain deformation can cause these individuals varying degrees of difficulty. Some of them do not find much difficulty from the condition, while others may suffer daily from a variety of negative effects including frequent headaches, balance problems, dexterity problems, vision difficulties, jammed spinal fluid, neck pains, etc.

The brain condition is named after Austrian pathologist Hans Chiari who categorized several rare brain malformations. Of course, Chiari I malformation is no longer so rare, as pregnant woman have been being drugged with antidepressants for nearly 3 decades and approximately one out of five of their babies may have been born with Chiari I malformation. It is now actually an epidemic.

The side effect of antidepressants causing Chiari I malformation showed up in a research study published in May, 2014 titled “Rate of Chiari I Malformation in Children of Mothers with Depression with and without Prenatal SSRI Exposure.” Part of the study compared the brains of children whose mothers had been diagnosed as depressed and been taking antidepressants during their pregnancies to the brains of children whose mothers had not been diagnosed depressed and were not taking antidepressants during their pregnancies. 18% of the children who had been on antidepressants had developed Chiari I malform-ation as compared to only 2% of the ones who had not been on antidepressants.
Many Chiari I malformation cases never discover they have this brain deformity or they discover it from a brain scan after years of suffering. Some of them opt for an operation in which the back of their skulls and upper neck are opened up so that steps can be taken to decrease the pressure to their lower brain and spinal canal, such as by removal of bone from their skulls. Some Chiari I patients require multiple operations to lessen their symptoms.

Additionally, there are many other adverse effects to children that can occur from the practice of drugging them with antidepressants when their bodies are in the womb. Some of the side effects include increased risks of miscarriage, premature birth, babies born with low birth weights, autism, skull deformations, Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension decreasing the amount of oxygen going to the babies’ brains and bodies, speech and language difficulties and drug withdrawals of the newborns coming off of antidepressants.

Of course it is healthier for both the mother and her baby if the mother is not depressed when she is pregnant. Thus there is a need for much healthier solutions for a pregnant mother’s depression than antidepressants.

It is now widely acknowledged that antidepressants work primarily by placebo effect, especially with the studies conducted by Irving Kirsch and the publication of his book The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth. (A placebo is a substance such as a small amount of sugar in a capsule, which has no real chemical benefit for the patient, but which the patient believes is a beneficial medicine.) Antidepressants are basically placebo substances, but ones which have side effects which tend to raise their effectiveness slightly above placebo [sugar pills] because the patients know they are taking some kind of drug from its side effects, and they have been given to believe the capsule they are taking will make them feel better.

Why not use a harmless, or better still, a healthy alternative to relieve the depression of pregnant women? Doctors may find the placebo effect of antidepressants convenient or maybe insurance companies won’t cover more time-consuming, healthier alternatives, but healthier alternatives must be utilized instead of the dangerous use of “antidepressants.” Exercise has been shown to alleviate depression. Placebos have also been shown to work, so why not give the pregnant mother a bottle of multi-vitamins to take with an encouraging recommendation from the doctor. Good nutrition is also helpful. Sincerely listening to a person’s problems and acknowledging them can alleviate depression. Even providing some pleasurable experiences, such as watching a particular movie can alleviate depression. Providing a pet, like a dog, can lessen depression for some people.

Whatever the objection, the present practice of drugging pregnant mothers who are “depressed” with antidepressants is too toxic and unhealthy and should be banned.

As a last comment, someone is likely to suggest that we should switch the pregnant mothers who seem depressed to other psychiatric drugs instead. However, all psychiatric drugs are essentially foreign substances to the body that are toxins and cause numerous negative side effects and diseases in patients. ADHD drugs cause stunted body growth. The antipsychotics have been shown to cause loss of brain tissue, diabetes and early deaths of both elderly and mental patients.

We should shift to healthy alternatives for pregnant women dealing with depression. This will require a lot of educating of parents and even many medical personnel.

C.L. Garrison is the author of Drugging Kids, Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD, which is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.


Knickmeyer RC, et al., “Rate of Chiari I Malformation in Children of Mothers with Depression with and without Prenatal SSRI Exposure,” Neuropsychopharmacology, (2014, May)
Mitchell, Jaqueline, “Reconsidering Antidepressants for Pregnant Women,” Tufts Now, (2012, Nov. 26)
El Marroun H et al., “Maternal Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors, Fetal Growth, and Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes,” Archives of General Psychiatry, (2012, July)
Brown AS et al., “Association of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Exposure During Pregnancy with Speech, Scholastic, and Motor Disorders in Offspring,” JAMA Psychiatry, (2016, Nov)
Kirsch, Irving, PhD, The Emperor’s New Drugs: Exploding the Antidepressant Myth
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How Can You Call Psychiatric Drugging Healthcare?

Psychiatry inflicting diseases and/or early deaths on all age groups

How can you call it healthcare when you drug fetuses with antidepressants and nearly 20% of them can develop Chiari brain malformation, where the bottom of the child’s brain grows into the top of the spinal canal instead of in the skull, often causing difficulties for those affected. Antidepressants during pregnancy are also associated with increased risk of causing premature births, autism, speech and language disorders, skull deformations and birth defects such as club feet and cleft palate and increased risk of causing newborns Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension, meaning the newborn’s arteries to the lungs don’t open fully so the amount of oxygen to the baby’s body becomes limited, which can cause brain damage and even death. These risks are being taken in spite of the fact that antidepressants are usually about as effective in alleviating depression as exercise or placebo (pills that don’t really contain medicine). In other words, there are other solutions that don’t involve toxication of their fetuses.

How can you call it healthcare when these newborns come into the world addicted to antidepressants and have to go through withdrawals? Ask someone who got off antidepressants. What was it like? Were they forced to get off the drug cold turkey? Did they get electrical, sort of zapping sensations in their brains? Should a newborn be made to go through withdrawals to start their new life after having his or her serotonin levels throughout their entire body’s nervous system, blood cells and digestive area unbalanced and all the other side effects they’ve been given? How much permanent damage has already been inflicted on them physically and how much trauma has been caused this child? Is the child now going to become a life-long client for more toxic psychiatric treatments?

How can you call it healthcare when you drug millions of children with ADHD stimulant drugs and the majority of them develop stunted body growth? Not to mention other side effects such as speeded heart rate, increased blood pressure, loss of appetite, insomnia, headaches, stomach discomfort, uncontrollable tics and twitches, reduced blood flow in the brain and possibly reduced brain size. Furthermore, many children and adults are now abusing and addicted to ADHD drugs and wrecking themselves physically and psychologically.

How can you call it healthcare when you drug hundreds of thousands of children for so-called ADHD and other assumed “mental disorders” with the drugs known as antipsychotics, knowing that these drugs have been shown to decrease brain tissue and markedly shorten the lives of patients? Not to mention cause weight gain and diabetes, inhibited bone formation, involuntary movements in the face and limbs, and other odd reactions like boys growing breasts; some lactating.

How can you call it healthcare when hundreds of thousands of children seized by Child Protective Services are put on antipsychotics and sometimes all of the above types of drugs at once and literally ruined by the treatments?

How can you call it healthcare when mental patients in America treated by our mental “health” system have been shown to die, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population, largely due to the constant prescribing of antipsychotic drugs and multiple drugs simultaneously? You could rightfully call it manslaughter.

How can you call it healthcare when millions of children and adults are put on antidepressants, and often find that they don’t really work and, worse still, thousands of them commit suicide and/or become violent because of the drugs? These drugs are also addictive, if for no other reason than the withdrawal effects are so awful when one tries to get off them. They can also cause numerous negative side effects such as nausea, weight gain, diabetes, high blood pressure, fatigue, drowsiness, insomnia, headaches, constipation, irritability, anxiety, loss of sex drive, erectile dysfunction, inability to orgasm, decreased blood clotting capability, involuntary muscle movements, dry mouth, etc. Their most horrendous side effects are the dangerous behaviors they often create (Go to

How can you call it healthcare when millions of American soldiers are put on combinations of psychiatric drugs, sometimes as many as a dozen drugs at once and they are committing suicide in record numbers, and the majority of them have never seen combat?

How can you call it healthcare when hundreds of thousands of citizens are turned into opioid addicts by our health system and the psych’s solution is to put them on replacement opioids which they push and which cause further addiction and high numbers of overdose deaths?

How can you call it healthcare when millions of elderly are put on antipsychotics and, as a result, the length of time they have to live is chopped nearly in half, to say nothing of the diminished quality of their lives once they are drugged? Is this a kind of manslaughter, assault and battery? It’s profitable though for the nursing homes and funeral parlors.

How can you call all this drugging of our population healthcare, when the drugs are foreign substances to our bodies that are actually toxins?

How can you call it healthcare when psychiatric diagnoses are done by opinion with no scientific or medical testing? For instance, did you know that numerous studies have been conducted in different countries that show that the youngest children in classes are much more likely to be diagnosed and drugged for ADHD than the older kids in the same classes because the younger children’s behavior is less mature? One American study conducted at Michigan State University concluded this had happened with nearly a million American children. This is insurance and Medicaid fraud on gigantic scales raising everyone’s insurance costs. Such fraud is possible with psychiatric diagnoses because there are no scientific or medical ways to confirm them.

Calling psychiatric treatment “healthcare” is a misnomer. “Corrupted big business” is quite apt. “Poisoning and murder” may be even more apt, even though it may seem surprising.

It is a truism that most psychiatric treatments routinely cause diseases and very often early deaths. These effects are intrinsic to its treatments.

For more information about psychiatric stimulant, antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs Google:

C.L. Garrison is the author of Drugging Kids, Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD, which is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.


Knickmeyer, RC et al., “Rate of Chiari I malformation in children of mothers with depression with and without prenatal SSRI exposure,” Neuropsychopharmacology, (2014 Oct)
Grigoriadis, S., “Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: systemic review and meta-analysis,” British Medical Journal (14 January 2014)
 “SSRIs Linked to Autism & Birth Defects,” drugwatch, (2016, May 26)
Boyles, S, “Infants and Antidepressant Withdrawal,” WebMD Health News, (2006, Feb 6)
Galbally, M. et al., “Serotonin Discontinuation Syndrome Following in Utero Exposure to Antidepressant Medication: Prospective Controlled Study,” Aust NZ J Psychiatry, (2009, Oct)
Reynolds, G, “How Exercise Might Keep Depression at Bay,” The New York Times, (2016, Nov 16)
Lisska, MC and Rivkees, SA, Department of Pediatrics of the Yale University School of Medicine, “Daily Methylphenidate Use Slows the Growth of Children: A Community Based Study,” Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism, (2003, Vol 16)
Poulton, A, Cowell, CT, Department of Paediatrics, Napean Hospital, Penrinth and Institute of Paediatric Endocrinology, Children’s Hospital at Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; “Slowing of growth in height and weight on stimulants: A characteristic pattern,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, (2003, Vol 39)
Wang, Gene-Jack et al., “Methylphenidate Decreases Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Normal Human Subjects,” Life Sciences, (1994, Nov 9)–2
Nasrallah, HA et al., “Cortical Atrophy in Young Adults With a History of Hyperactivity in Childhood,” Psychiatry Research, (1986, Vol 17)
Ricker, R & Nicolino, V, “Adderall: The Most Abused Prescription Drug in America,” Huffington Post, (2010, June 21)
Ho BC, Andreasen NC et al., “Long-term antipsychotic treatment and brain volumes: a longitudinal study of first–episode schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry, (2011, Feb)
Harris, G, “Popular Drugs for Dementia Tied to Deaths,” The New York Times, (2005, April 12)
 Joe Parks, MD et al., “Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness,” Report for the National Association of Mental Health Program Directors, (2006, Oct)
 GAO U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Foster Children: HHS Guidelines Could Help States Improve Oversight of Psychotropic Prescriptions,” (2011, Dec 1)
 “CPS Whistleblower Exposes CPS’s Corruption, Kidnapping, and Drugging of Children,” website, (2013, Oct 8)
Kirsch, I, “Antidepressants and the Placebo Effect,” Zeitschrift Fur Psychologie, (2014)
Smith, M, Robinson, L, Segal, J, “Antidepressant Medication,”, (2017, April)
“Medicating the military – Use of psychiatric drugs has spiked; concerns surface about suicide, other dangers,” (2013 Mar 29)
 “Senator John McCain Introduces Legislation to Prevent Overmedication & Combat Suicide Among Veterans,” Press release from the office of U.S. Senator John McCain, (2016, Sept 28)
“Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic: Methadone,” The Pew Charitable Trust, (2014, Aug 18)
Elder, T, “Nearly 1 Million Children Misdiagnosed with ADHD,” Michigan State News MSU Today  (2010, Aug 17)
Nauert, R, “Youngest Kids in Class Get More ADHD Diagnoses,Drugs,” (2012, Mar 6)


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Mercenary Psychiatric Marketers Driving Drug Sales for Children Questioned

Reaping profits, diseases and early deaths

On March 4-6, 2016, the continuing education program known as Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2016 was being delivered at the Westin Copley Place in Boston. The first day of presentations featured three controversial psychiatrists: Dr. Joseph Biederman, Dr. Timothy Wilens and Dr. Thomas Spencer, who have been influential in helping pharmaceutical companies market their drugs to doctors.

These psychiatrists became infamous because they failed to report the full extent of their earnings from drug companies to the institutions they worked for, Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), while they were also getting grants from the National Institute of Health.

According to Congressional Record, Volume 154 Issue 91 (Wednesday, June 4, 2008), U.S. Senator Charles Grassley, as the ranking member on the Senate Finance Committee, asked to see the conflict of interest forms Biederman, Wilens and Spencer had submitted to Harvard and MGH for the years 2000-2007. When he received them, he and his aides found them very hard to decipher and giving the impression that the doctors had not received much money from drug companies.

When the psychiatrists were asked to review the reports, Biederman and Wilens admitted to having each received approximately 1.6 million dollars and Spencer admitted to receiving a million. Senator Grassley also obtained reports from some of the drug companies paying these individuals and found that many of the sums the psychiatrists reported were still understated.

In the last decade, Biederman’s endeavors to assist in the marketing of the modern antipsychotic drugs to be used on young children who were supposedly bipolar drew a lot of pushback and controversy. Antipsychotics can cause serious negative side effects. They commonly cause rapid weight gain and the development of diabetes in patients which can lead to early deaths.

A long study conducted by Neuroscientist Nancy Andreasen and others on the use of antipsychotics on schizophrenic patients showed that these drugs were causing a loss of brain tissue at a rate of about one percent a year.

The modern antipsychotics are also associated with shortened life span. In 2005, the FDA began requiring black box warnings on literature about these drugs after they found from a review of 17 studies that elderly patients with dementia put on antipsychotics were dying 1.6 to 1.7 times faster than comparable elderly not put on the drugs. In 2006, findings were published from a large study of the treatment of mental patients in eight of the states of the U.S. The study revealed that patients with serious mental health problems treated by our mental health system were dying, on average, 25 years earlier than the general population. One of the major reasons cited for this was the use of the modern antipsychotics and their tendency to cause diabetes and other serious physical side effects.

Dr. Biederman was especially involved with doing research to justify the use of Johnson & Johnson’s antipsychotic drug Risperdal on young children. Risperdal is now notorious for causing young men to grow breasts, even ones that are lactating. Many of these gentlemen are requiring mastectomies.

Studies have also shown that Risperdal and other antipsychotic drugs have a tendency to inhibit bone formation, causing osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Of course, inhibiting bone formation is unhealthy for anyone, but it is especially so for growing children.

Traditional medicine and psychiatry remain very odd bedfellows. Medicine is primarily concerned with locating diseases in patients’ bodies and curing them. Psychiatry is mainly concerned with drugging people, despite not finding diseases in their bodies and its drug treatments always cause diseases in its patients’ bodies, often of a serious and even life-threatening nature.

Unfortunately, the marketing of antipsychotic drugs in recent years has caused hundreds of thousands of children to be administered these very toxic substances. According to a study published in the medical journal Psychiatry in 2015, about 60% of the children, ages 7-12, who were put on antipsychotics were being drugged with these toxins for the invented diagnosis known as ADHD. As usual, most were boys.

Drugging Kids: Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.

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Leading ADHD Psychiatrist Gets “Driven to Distraction”, Allegedly Gropes TV Make-up Artist and Is Indicted

ADHD-Promoting Psychiatrist Ed Hallowell

According to ABC Boston News’, on May 11, 2015, Dr. Edward M. Hallowell, an instructor at Harvard Medical School and co-author of the ADHD promotional book, Driven to Distraction, was in court, accused and indicted for groping a makeup artist while in preparation for a videotaping.

Dr. Hallowell runs the Hallowell Center for Cognitive and Emotional Health in Sudbury, MA, which has specialized for years in diagnosing and drugging children for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.  Hallowell is known for forwarding a saying that ADHD drugs are less harmful than aspirin.

This is a surprising statement considering the well-known fact that the majority of children who are brought up on ADHD amphetamine drugs, while their bodies are trying to grow, develop stunted body growth, including smaller brains.  Now that another Harvard psychiatrist, Joseph Biederman, has succeeded in promoting the use of antipsychotic drugs on small children for ADHD and other so-called mental disorders, there is good reason to suspect even greater brain damage is resulting.  Recent studies have shown a direct correlation between the use of antipsychotics and brain tissue loss. Additionally, many studies have shown these drugs cause shortening of life span on elderly and mental patients.

Amazingly, this carnage is being done in the name of health and despite the fact that ADHD diagnosing is done primarily by opinion with no sound scientific or medical testing to confirm it. In recent years, studies in Iceland, Canada and the United States have shown that often the youngest children in classes are much more frequently diagnosed and drugged for ADHD because they are acting less maturely than their older peers in the same classrooms.  One US study estimated this had occurred with nearly a million American children.  Such massive fraud can occur with mental health diagnoses because there is no scientific way to confirm them.

Possibly Hallowell’s groping of young children’s brains through the promotion of the stigmatizing ADHD label and dangerous ADHD amphetamines is even more worthy of an indictment than what he allegedly did to the TV make-up artist when he was “Driven to Distraction” by her.

Drugging Kids: Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.


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Lack of Academic Improvement from ADHD Drugs

Many Studies have Shown ADHD Drugs Do Not
Improve Academic Performance

The primary ADHD drugs are comprised of the psychostimulants methylphenidate (sold under such trade names as Ritalin and Concerta) or amphetamines (sold under such trade names as Adderall, Vyvance and Dexedrine). They are all considered to be in the same category as cocaine by the Drug Enforcement Administration (D.E.A.) due to their similar effects on users and their potential for abuse and addiction.

Anyone, whether labeled ADHD or not, who first begins taking any of these three chemicals (methylphenidate, amphetamines or cocaine) would find that their concentration seemed to improve for the first few days or weeks of taking them. They might experience a greater sense of confidence at this time as well. The increased ability to concentrate could even be on subject matter that they would ordinarily find boring or written materials they don’t fully understand.

Numerous Studies Conducted

In the 70’s and 80’s numerous studies were conducted to see how ADHD drugs improved academic performance in students. It was found that while they seem to improve academic performance in students and appear to, to parents and teachers, in the long run they do not really improve academic performance. As Gerald Coles stated in his book published in 1987, The Learning Mystique, A Critical Look at “Learning Disabilities”: “Worst of all for drug advocates, whether the studies were short- or long-term, whether they met basic scientific criteria or not, all conclusions converged: ‘stimulant drugs have little, if any, impact on … long-term academic outcome.’”

For more recent data about this subject one could read the July 8, 2013 Wall Street Journal article by Shirley Wang titled “ADHD Drugs Don’t Boost Kids Grades,” subtitled ‘Studies of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Find Little Change.’ Simply google the title of the article and read it if you want.

In the February 12, 2014 issue of the Journal Nature there was an article titled “Medication: The smart-pill oversell,” subtitled ‘Evidence is mounting that medication for ADHD doesn’t make a lasting difference to schoolwork or achievement,’ authored by Katherine Sharpe. Google this title.

The Phenomenon of Teachers and Parents
Assuming Children on ADHD Drugs Are
Performing Better Academically

In the above article in the journal Nature there was a particular paragraph which deserves special attention: “In the 1970’s, two researchers, Russell Barkley and Charles Cunningham, noted that when children with ADHD took stimulants, parents and teachers rated their academic performance as vastly improved. But objective measurements showed that the quality of their work hadn’t changed. What looked like achievement was actually manageability in the classroom. If medication made struggling children appear to be doing fine, they might be passed over for needed help, the authors suggested.”

This statement is similar to the findings from a study published in 1983 in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, titled “Effects of Methylphenidate in Combination with Reading Remediation,” by Rachel Gittelman, Donald Klein and Ingrid Feingold. The article stated: ‘It is common for parents and teachers of methylphenidate-treated children to report marked improvement in school performance. Yet attempts to document these observations have not succeeded; and it is now generally believed that academic improvement is not associated with methylphenidate treatment.’

Why the Drugs Don’t Really Improve
Academic Performance

If a child on an ADHD drug doesn’t know what the word “hypotenuse” means and is confronted with a math problem using the word, he or she might be able to concentrate on the question unwaveringly for 10 minutes, but it is likely they wouldn’t be able to figure out its answer correctly. This sort of difficulty in study is not addressed and handled by giving a child a drug. It is addressed by finding and defining the word the child does not know the meaning of. Drugs don’t do that (and trying to guess the meanings of words usually doesn’t either).

However, it seems to be the case that children put on stimulant drugs, who then appear to concentrate better and be more attentive in class, and who are easier to manage in the classroom, at least initially, are sometimes given higher grades and more glowing report cards by their teachers.

The Role of Placebo Effect in the Delusion

There is another factor which is at play regarding the effects of ADHD drugs and that is the placebo effect, where one thinks they are doing better because they have swallowed a substance which they have been given to believe will make them somehow better. This phenomenon surely applies to some of the students given the drugs. But also, in a sense, both the teachers and parents of children given ADHD drugs may suffer from a similar effect in that they believe the drugs are helping their children learn and understand, especially since the children appear to be more studious.

The Bottom Line

But the bottom line is ADHD drugs do not improve academic performance in the long run. In fact, there are some studies which indicate they actually hurt academic performance, like the study cited in the article in the journal Nature referenced above.

To find out a great deal more and really understand the ADHD diagnosis and its drug treatments, buy this book. It could save your child from side effects he or she might not want to have for the rest of his or her life.

Drugging Kids: Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.

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ADHD Drugs: Harmful Effects

There are a Lot of Harmful Side Effects
to ADHD Drugs

There are a lot of adverse side effects to ADHD drugs. Common side effects are headaches, stomach discomfort, speeded heart rate, raised blood pressure, changes in mood, loss of appetite, weight loss, insomnia, suppressed body growth, becoming addicted and very likely brain damage. Let’s address a few of these.

Stunted Body Growth

Suppressed body growth is a major side effect of ADHD drugs when they are used on children. This phenomenon has long been observed and studies have shown it.

This phenomenon applies to those ADHD drugs comprised of methylphenidate such as Ritalin and Concerta, and those drugs made of amphetamines, such as Adderall, Vyvance and Dexedrine. These drugs and cocaine are commonly known as stimulants.

A study that was conducted by Megan C. Lisska and Scott A. Rivkees from the Department of Pediatrics of the Yale University School of Medicine is an example. Their findings were published in the Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism in 2003. The article was titled “Daily Methylphenidate Use Slows the Growth of Children: A Community Based Study.”

The researchers in this study found that after 3 years of taking methylphenidate (Ritalin) 76% of the boys and 90% of the girls were falling behind in their body growth. During this time both the boys and girls were losing between 3-4 centimeters in height when compared to the control groups.

Possible Brain Shrinkage

There is reason to believe that the most common ADHD drugs cause brain shrinkage. To begin with, if a drug is causing a child’s overall body to be stunted in its growth, we can assume that this is occuring with the child’s brain as well.

There have been studies of the brains of methamphetamine addicts showing brain tissue decreases of approximately 10% of some parts of their brains.

There have been dozens of studies showing that children who have been brought up on stimulants have slightly smaller brain sizes than children not brought up on stimulants. For decades American psychiatrists claimed that the smaller brain sizes were due to ADHD, not the stimulants the kids were taking while their bodies were trying to grow. However, psychiatrists have failed to conduct proper studies to verify their assumption.

Reduced Blood Flow to the Brain
from Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

A research study published in the journal Life Sciences in November, 1994, titled “Methylphenidate Decreases Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Normal Human Subjects” showed that a small group of male subjects who were all injected with a normal dose of methylphenidate all had a 23-30% loss of blood flow in their brains 5-10 minutes after injection and a half-hour after the injection. Since this was such a significant reduction in blood flow, this leads one to surmise that perhaps the loss of oxygen and nutrients going to the brains of children being given stimulants could be a contributing factor to their smaller brain sizes. This factor might be compounded in many cases by the common side effect of loss of appetite that kids tend to have on these drugs, a factor which by itself would cause less nutrients to be going to the brain.

Atrophy Seen in Furrows of the Brain
Coincident with Use of Ritalin in Childhood

The word atrophy means a failure to grow or a wasting away. Cortical means referring to the cerebral cortex, which is the external layer, the “gray matter” covering the brain. There was a study conducted by Henry Nasrallah and others, titled “Cortical Atrophy in Young Adults with a History of Hyperactivity in Childhood,” published in 1986 in the journal Psychiatry Research, Volume 17. One of the interesting things about this study was that 58% of the men with a history of being labeled hyperactive and given ADHD drugs had developed mild or moderate sulcal widening, in other words the furrows on the cerebral cortex of their brains were widened due to tissue loss. In the control group for this study only 3.8% had any sulcal widening. (Sulcal comes from the Latin word sulcus which meant “furrow.”) I don’t think this study has ever been followed up on, at least not openly.

Drug Addiction from ADHD Stimulants

There is another side effect of stimulants that is becoming more and more of an issue each year and that is the addiction that these drugs can bring about. Addiction caused by ADHD drugs happens mainly with people who abuse the drugs, taking them without a prescription or in amounts higher than a prescribing doctor has specified. Students in high school or college may take these drugs to cram for exams, as the drugs make it possible for them to stay up all night without sleeping and concentrate on their course materials and then take exams the next day. Sometimes students stay up for several nights in a row, getting little or no sleep and eating very little, since their appetites have gone away due to the drugs. Simultaneously their hearts are beating at an unnatural, faster pace. In this way students can do harm to their bodies and become addicted over time, requiring higher and higher dosages of the drugs to function. This is happening increasingly in our colleges and now many of these same students are carrying their dependence on amphetamines into the workplaces of today. An illuminating news article on this phenomenon was in the February 2, 2013 New York Times, written by Alan Schwarz, titled “Drowned in a Stream of Prescriptions.” Google the title of the article and read it, if you wish.

ADHD Drugs Open the Door to Massive
Psychiatric Drugging of Schoolchildren

The ADHD drugs were gateway drugs that opened the doors to all manner of other drugging of children for depression, PTSD, Asbergers, bipolar, etc., through our nation’s schools.  They also opened the doors for very strong and dangerous drugs known as antipsychotics to be given to children, even very young ones. The antipsychotics have been shown to shorten life span and shrink brains.  (See interviews with researcher Nancy Andreasen about the shrinkage.)  These drugs are now being prescribed for ADHD.

Today, our children are being exploited as a huge drug market through our schools. Fifteen to twenty percent of children in some classrooms are taking psych drugs today.

To find out a great deal more and really understand the ADHD diagnosis and its drug treatments, buy this book. It could save your child from side effects he or she might not want to have for the rest of his or her life.

 Drugging Kids: Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.

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Basic Facts about ADHD Drugging

The ADHD Diagnosis is Done by Opinion,
Not Scientific or Medical Testing

The ADHD diagnosis is without solid medical or scientific foundation. This can be said about mental health diagnoses in general.

This is because when someone is diagnosed with ADHD or any mental disorder, the diagnosis is not based on physical evidence of something found in the patient’s body through X-rays, a blood test, tissue sample examination, etc.

The diagnosis is made by opinion, often after a conversation with the “patient” or a parent in their initial visit with a psychiatrist.

Boys Have Been Natural Targets for Drugging

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a label commonly assigned to children, especially boys. As most people can easily observe, boys naturally tend to be more rambunctious than girls and consequently they have been diagnosed with this so-called disorder a great deal more.

In the 1980’s and early 90’s, boys were diagnosed as having ADHD about 9 times as much as girls. This, of course, showed that the diagnostic criteria for ADHD had made typical boy characteristics into a “mental disorder.”

Over the decades since, more and more girls have been labeled ADHD so that the ratio of boys to girls being labeled with the “disorder” is now about two to one, or two and a half to one, boys over girls.

Youngest Children in Classes Get Drugged Most

Studies conducted in several countries in recent years have revealed that often the youngest children in classes have been diagnosed as having ADHD far more than the older children in the same grades.

Some of these analyses of the prevalence of diagnosing children with ADHD involved hundreds of thousands of children.

In the studies the data showed that the younger children were being diagnosed ADHD simply because they were exhibiting normal, age-appropriate behavior. They were acting less maturely than their older classmates. For example, google the title of an article about one of these studies: “Youngest Kids in Class Get More ADHD Diagnoses, Drugs.”

How could such misdiagnoses occur? Because the diagnosing process involves no real scientific and medical confirmation. As could be expected, hundreds of thousands of children have consequently been drugged with amphetamines and amphetamine-type drugs, with all their attendant, harmful side effects. This is especially true in the U.S.

Psychiatrists making the diagnoses and drug companies whose drugs were being used have been able to pocket billions from the baseless diagnoses.

This massive waste of funds has been borne by those whose hard-earned income is spent on taxes and health insurance.

More damaging has been the side effects these drugs have had on the growing bodies of children and the psychological effects they have had on them as well.

Unscientific Diagnoses Have Allowed
Thousands to Fake ADHD to Get Drugs

The ease of getting an ADHD diagnosis, without scientific or medical testing, has made it possible for thousands of high school and college students to fake having the diagnosis so that they could get prescriptions for amphetamines or amphetamine-type drugs.

They could use the drugs to cram for exams, get high with, or sell to other students.
Sometimes students who abuse the ADHD amphetamines this way get addicted to the drugs and do themselves serious physical harm. Some have overdosed. Some have committed suicide.

Psychiatrists can easily defraud insurance companies and Medicaid for the same reason: there are no medical tests to confirm the diagnosis.

To find out a great deal more and really understand the ADHD diagnosis and its drug treatments, buy this book. It could save your child from side effects he or she might not want to have for the rest of his or her life.

Drugging Kids: Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.

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The New Book is Available!

Announcing author C. L. Garrison's book, Drugging Kids: Psychiatry's Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD

Drugging Kids: Psychiatry’s Wholesale Drugging of Schoolchildren for ADHD is available on, both as a paperback and as a Kindle book.

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on The New Book is Available!